At the international level, there are two important freely accessible databases developed by international organizations for policymakers and businesses: a free trade agreement is a set of rules about how countries deal with each other when it comes to doing business together – the import and export of goods or services and investments. Free trade agreements can reaffirm the importance of maintaining and enforcing competition law, transparency and due process with provisions for cooperation and consultation/notification in competition policy, in particular where anti-competitive behaviour may have affected trade and investment between countries. For example, New Zealand often attempts to introduce rules limiting and deceding certain categories of subsidies of particular importance, including those that harm our export markets or harm the environment, such as subsidies that encourage the use of fossil fuels or unsustainable fishing practices. Economists have tried to assess the extent to which free trade agreements can be considered public goods. They address a key element of free trade agreements, namely the system of embedded courts that act as arbitrators in international trade disputes. These serve to clarify existing statutes and international economic policies, as reaffirmed in trade treaties.  Unlike a customs union, parties to a free trade agreement do not have common external tariffs, which means that they apply different tariffs and other policies towards non-members. This feature allows non-parties to obtain footsp preferences under a free trade agreement by entering the market with the lowest external tariffs. Such a risk requires the introduction of rules for determining which originating products are eligible for preferences under a free trade agreement, a need that does not arise in the context of the creation of a customs union.
 In principle, a minimum volume of processing is required, resulting in a “substantial transformation” of the goods in order for them to be considered originating. In defining the products originating in the ATP, the preferential rules of origin distinguish between originating and non-originating products: only the former are entitled to the preferential duties set by the FREE TRADE AGREEMENT, the latter must pay the most-favoured-nation duties.  There are important differences between customs unions and free trade areas. Both types of trading blocs have internal agreements that the parties conclude to liberalize and facilitate trade between them. The key difference between customs unions and free trade areas is their treatment vis-à-vis third parties[clarification of concepts required]. While a customs union requires all parties to set and maintain identical external tariffs for trade with non-parties, parties to a free trade area are not subject to such a requirement. Instead, they may import and maintain the customs procedure applicable to imports from non-Parties which they deem necessary.  In a free trade area without harmonized external customs duties, the Parties will adopt a system of preferential rules of origin to eliminate the risk of relocation.  The world has almost achieved more free trade from the next round, the so-called Doha Round trade agreement.
If successful, Doha would have reduced tariffs for all WTO members if one country imposed trade restrictions and no other country responded. A country can also unilaterally ease trade restrictions, but this rarely happens. . . .